Light Copyediting

  • Reviewing and correcting all indisputable errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, usage, and syntax.
  • Correcting inconsistencies in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, formatting, hyphenation, number style, abbreviations, list formatting, italics, and tense.
  • Ensuring house style is applied properly.
  • Checking table of contents; checking numbering of footnotes or endnotes, tables, and figures.
  • Pointing out awkward or confusing areas.
  • Pointing out major organizational problems.
  • Querying factual inconsistencies or incorrect information.
  • Noting missing material.

Medium (Standard) Copyediting

Includes the light copyediting above, plus:

  • Reducing wordiness.
  • Resolving inconsistencies or clarify confusing passages.
  • Reworking confusing or awkward constructions.
  • Performing basic fact checking.
  • Rearranging sentences or paragraphs to improve flow.
  • Noting possible permissions issues.
  • Changing passive sentences to active voice.
  • Revising shifts in tense, number, subject, discourse, or mood.

Substantive Editing

Includes medium editing above, plus:

  • Eliminating jargon and other inappropriate material.
  • Adding transitions and summaries as needed.
  • Eliminating trite language.
  • Integrating figures and diagrams.
  • Cross-checking information presented in text and figures.
  • Reviewing the manuscript for portions that can be eliminated.
  • Reviewing the manuscript for gaps and working with the author to repair.
  • Adding or deleting heads and subheads as needed.
  • Checking problems and answers to questions in exercises.
  • Reorganize where necessary.
  • Revising or querying inaccuracies.
  • Ensuring material is written at the appropriate reading level.
  • Eliminating biased language.


For Word documents, Word’s “track changes” function is used, which allows you to see what has been added or removed and gives you the ability to accept or reject changes without having to input the corrections yourself. Documents can also be copyedited on paper, with corrections marked directly on the hard copy.

Pricing is typically done per word or per page. The advantage of this pricing over hourly is that you know how much the project will cost you before work is begun. Of course, per project and per hour rates are also available.

Please contact us with the scope of your project and a few sample pages. A sample edit can be performed to determine the level of copyediting required, pricing, and a time frame to complete the project.